The most recent Consumer Products Safety Council puts the number of firework and sparkler burns injuries a year at a little less than 10,000—almost all of which will occur within the span of this week.
According to Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, the most common mix is charcoal and sulfur as fuel, potassium nitrate as an oxidizer, and sugar or starch as a binder.
The color mix of the firework or sparkler also varies the exact composition a little, as this chart from Compound Interest breaks down.
You need some kind of fuel, an oxidizer, either iron or steel powder, a binder, and wire.
Different colors aside, it’s the same relatively simple formula of wire, fuel, and oxidizer over and over again.
In fact, if you’re so inclined, the internet abounds with vaguely-alarming DIY sparkler recipes that you can use to mix up a batch yourself.
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